Question Answer
Equity Theory A model of motivation that explains how people strive for fairness and justice in social exchanges or give-and-take relationships.
Two primary components involved in the employee-employer exchange? Inputs and Outputs
Inputs from employees are? Education/Training, Skills, Creativity, Seniority, Age, Personality Traits, Effort Expended, and Personal Appearance
Outcomes of inputs are? Bonuses, Medical Benefits, Challenging Assigments, Job Security, Promotions, Status Symbols, Recognition, Participation in Important Decisions
Equity is based on ___ comparing ratios of outcomes to inputs
Negative Inequity Comparison person enjoys greater outcomes for similar inputs
Positive Inequity When his or her outcome to input ratio is greater than that of a relevant coworker
Adam's Equity Theory 1. People have varying sensitivities to perceived equity and inequity2. Inequity can be reduced in a variety of ways
Equity Sensitivity Reflects an individual's "different preferences for, tolerance for, and reactions to the level of equity associated with any given situationRange from Benevolents to Sensitives to Entitled
Benevolents People who have a higher tolerance for negative inequity
Sensitive Described as individuals who adhere to a strict norm of reciprocity and are quickly motivated to resolve both negative and positive inequity
Entitleds No tolerance for negative inequityWant a greater ratio than those compared too
Equity Theory's Six Important Implications 1. Pay attention perceptions of fair2. Allow employees participate in decision making3. Opportunity to appeal decisions affecting welfare4. Promote cooperation5. Perceptions influenced by leadership behavior6. Organization's climate for justice
Reducing Inequity Ratios can be changed by attempting to alter one's outcomes or adjusting one's inputs
Distributive Justice Reflect the perceived fairness of how resources and rewards are distributed or allocated
Procedural Justice As the perceived of the process and procedures used to make allocation decisions
Interactional Justice Relates to the "quality of the interpersonal treatment people receive when procedures are implemented"
Expectancy Theory Holds that people are motivated to behave in ways that produce desired combinations of expected outcomes
What can expectancy theory be used for? Predict behavior in any situation in which a choice between two or more alternatives must be made.
Vroom's Expectancy Theory Effort —- Performance —- Outcomes3 Key Comcepts:1. Expectancy2. Instrumentality3. Performance
Expectancy Represents an individual's belief that a particular degree of effort will be followed by a particular level of performanceFactors: – Self-esteem, Self-efficacy, Previous success at the task, help received from others, info necessary to complete task
Instrumentality Performance — to — outcome perceptionBelief that a particular outcome in contingent on accomplishing a specific level of performancePassing a test — graduation
Valence Refers to the positive or negative value people place on outcomesOutcome's valence depends of an individual's needs
3 Balances between monetary and nonmonetary rewards 1. Some workers value interesting work and recognition more than money2. Extrinsic rewards can lose their motivating properties over time and may undermine intrinsic motivation3. Monetary rewards must generate motivation
Goal What an individual is trying to accomplish; it is the object or aim of an action
Management by Objectives Management system that incorporates participation in decision making, goal setting, and objective feedback.
Goals Direct Attention Goals direct one's attention and effort towards goal-relevant activities and away from goal-irrelevant activities
What does goal setting do? – Goal direct attention- Goals regulate effort- Goals Increase Persistence- Goals foster the development and application of task strategies and action plans
Insights from goal-setting 1. Specific high goals=performance2. Feedback enhances the effect of specific, difficult goals3. Participative, assigned, self-set goals =equal4. Action planning facilitates goal accomplishment5. Goal commitment and monetary incentives affect outc
Goal specificity Pertains to the quantifiability of a goal.- Sell nine cars this month instead of "do your best"
Action Plan Outline the activities or task that need to be accomplished in order to obtain a goal
Goal Commitment The extent to which an individual is personally committed to achieving a goal
3 Goal Setting Steps 1. Set Goal2. Promote Goal Commitment3. Provide Support and Feedback
SMART SpecificMeasurableAttainableResults OrientedTime boundPLUS:- training for problem-solving and developing action plan- change goals according to person