Question Answer
Feedback Information about an individual or collective performance shared with those in a position to improve the situation
Two Functions of Feedback 1. Instructional2. Motivational
Three Sources of Feedback 1. Others2. Task3. Self
Four Behavioral Outcomes of Feedback 1. Direction2. Effort3. Persistence4. Resistance
Upward Feedback Stands the traditional approach on its head by having lower-level employees provide feedback on a manager's style and performanceAnonymous
360-Degree Feedback Letting individuals compare their own perceived performance with behaviorally specific performance information from their manager, subordinates, and peersAKA Full Circle Feedback
Feedback Don'ts 1. use to punish, embarrass, or put down2. provide irrelevant feedback3. provide feedback that is too late4. Provide feedback beyong individual's control5. provide overly complex or difficult to understand
Feedback Do's 1. Keep relevant2. Deliver as soon as possible3. Provide specific and descriptive feedback4. Focus on things that can be controlled5. Be honest, developmental, and constructive6. Facilitate two-way communication
3 Key Factors in Organizational Reward Systems 1. Types of Rewards2. Distribution Criteria3. Desired Outcomes
Total Rewards Encompass not only compensation and benefits, but also personal and professional growth opportunities and a motivating work environment that includes recognition, job design, and work-life balance
Extrinsic Rewards Financial, material, and social rewards from the environment
Intrinsic Rewards Psychic rewards that are self-granted
Distribution Criteria 1. Performance: Results2. Performance: Actions and Behaviors3. Nonperformance Considerations
Pay for Performance Popular term for monetary incentives linking at least some portion of the paycheck directly to the results or accomplishments
Rewards often fail to ____ Motivate
Law of Effect Behavior with favorable consequences tends to be repeated, while behavior with unfavorable consequences tends to disappear.
Respondent Behavior Unlearned reflexes or stimulus-response connections
Operant Behavior Behavior that is learned when one "operates on" the environment to produce desired consequencesResponse-Stimulus
Contingent Consequences Positive ReinforcementNegative ReinforcementPunishmentExtinctionDEF: there is a systematic if-then linkage between the target behavior and the consequence
Positive Reinforcement Process of strengthening a behavior by contingently presenting something pleasing
Negative Reinforcement Strengthens a desired behavior by contingently withdrawing something displeasing
Punishment The process of weakening behavior through either the contingent presentation of something displeasing or the contingent withdrawal of something positive.
Extinction Weakening a behavior by ignoring it or making sure it is not reinforced Deleting a phone number removes communication
Continuous Reinforcement Every instance of a target behavior is reinforced when a CRF schedule is in effect
Intermittent Reinforcement Involves reinforcement of some but not all instances of a target behaviorFixed Ratio – bonuses tied to salesVariable Ratio – slot machine level pullsFixed Interval – Paychecks and annual bonusVariable Interval – random praise and pats on the bac
Shaping The process of reinforcing closer and closer approximations to a target marketTraining an whale to be ridden