Question Answer
Group Two or more freely interacting individuals who share collective norms and goals and have a common identity
Formal Group Group formed by a manager to help to organization accomplish its goals
Informal Group Exists when the members' overriding purpose if getting together is friendship
2 Functions of Formal Groups 1. Organizational2. Individual
The Group Development Process 1. Forming2. Storming3. Norming4. Performing5. Adjourning
Forming Ice-BreakerTrust is lowSeeing who takes charge
Storming Testing leaders and assumptions to determine power structure
Norming (Group Cohesiveness) Authority and power are set. GC: the "we feeling" that binds members of a group together, the principle by-product of stage 3
Role Set of expected behaviors for a particular position, and a group role is a set of expected behaviors for members of a group as a wholeTwo Types:1. Task2. Maintenance
Task Roles Enable the work group to define, clarify, and pursue a common purpose
Maintenance Roles Foster supportive and constructive interpersonal relationship
Tasks vs. Maintenance Roles Task keep the group on trackMaintenance keeps group together
Norms An attitude, opinion, feeling, or action — shared by two or more people — that guides their behavior
How Norms are Developed – Explicit Statements by supervisors or coworkers- Critical events in the group's history- Primacy- Carryover behaviors from past situations
Why norms are enforced – Help group survive- Clarify expectations- Helps avoid embarrassing situations- Clarify group's values and identity
Team A small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable
Group become teams when… – Leadership- Accountability- Purpose- Problem Solving- Effectiveness
3 C's of Team Players – Committed- Collaborative- Competent
Team Building A catchall term for a host to techniques aimed to improving the internal functioning of work groups
3 Fundamental Elements for Team Building – Clear Objectives- Validation- Performance Information
6 Practical Applications 1. Share personal histories2. Ask what has worked for you in the past3. Describe how the team will work together4. Optimize member's strengths5. Establish norms for making decision6. Establish processes for giving and receiving feedback
A Key Ingredient of Teamwork Trust
Trust A reciprocal faith that the intentions and behaviors of another will consider the implications for you3 Forms:- Contractual- Communication- Competence
How to Build and Maintain Trust 1. Communication2. Support3. Respect4. Fairness5. Predictability6. Competence
Self-Managed Teams Defined as groups of workers who are given administrative oversight (planning, scheduling, monitoring, and staffing) for their task domains
Managerial Resistance — seeing who as a threat? Self-managed teams are threat to their job security
Cross-functionalism A common feature of self-managed teams, particularly among those above the shop-floor or clerical level
Virtual Teams A physically dispersed task group that conducts its business through information communication technology
Distributed workers Have no permanent office at their companies, preferring to work in home offices.
Virtual Team Considerations – Be strategic about communications- Develop productive relationships with key people on the team- Partner- Pace- Focus
Two Major Threats to Group Effectiveness Groupthink and Social Loafing
Groupthink A mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when members' striving for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action
8 Symptoms of Groupthink 1. Invulnerability2. Inherent Morality3. Rationalization4. Stereotyped views of opposition5. Self-censorship6. Illusion of unanimity7. Peer Pressure8. Mindguards
Social Loafing Tendency for individual effort to decline as group size increases.Tug-of-war"Free-riding" increase as group size increases and work is dispersed
Free-riding Reasons 1. Equity of Effort2. Loss of personal accountability3. Motivational loss due to the sharing of rewards4. Coordination loss as more people perform the task
8 Attributes of High-Performance Teams 1. Participative Leadership2. Shared responsibility3. Aligned on purpose4. High communication5. Future focused6. Focused on task7. Creative talents8. Rapid Response
Team Charters Describe how the team will operate, such as processes for sharing information and decision making (Teamwork)
Team Performance Strategies Which are deliberate plans that outline what exactly the team is to do, such as defining particular tasks and member responsibilities
Team Composition Describes the collection of jobs, personalities, knowledge, skills, abilities, and experience of its members
Team Adaptive Capacity (Adaptability) — Important to meet changing demands and to effectively transition members in and out.